Some 40% of Slovakia is covered with forests. Slovakia’s forests contain a wide biodiversity and animals include brown bears, wolves, foxes, wild boars, muskrats, chamois and lynxes. Slovakia features a high percentage of wildlife included in protected areas. There are hardly any mountain ranges and areas not under some form of protection.
Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany is a transnational composite nature site. The Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians include ten separate massifs located along the 185 km (115 mi) long axis from the Rakhiv mountains and Chornohora ridge in Ukraine over the Poloniny Ridge (Slovakia) to the Vihorlat Mountains in Slovakia. The Ancient Beech Forests of Germany include five locations in various parts of Germany
The Carpathian site covers a total area of 77,971.6 ha (192,672 acres), out of which only 29,278.9 ha (72,350 acres) are part of the actual preserved area, while the rest is considered a “buffer zone”. Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians cover areas of Zakarpattia and Presov Regions. Over 70% of the site is located in Ukraine. The area includes two national parks, a biosphere reserve, and a few habitat controlled areas (mostly in Slovakia). Both national parks, along with a neighboring area in Poland, compose a separate biosphere reserve, the East Carpathian Biosphere Reserve.
Besides Havešová, Rožok, and Stužica (all of them located in Bukovské vrchy), there is a fourth component situated in Slovakia, named Kyjovský prales of Vihorlat.
Ukrainian locations include Chornohora, Kuziy-Trybushany, Maramarosh, Stuzhytsia–Uzhok, Svydovets, and Uholka–Shyrikyi Luh. However, only few of the ten components are accessible to visitors. Stužica is the only one of three locations in Bukovske vrchy (Slovakia) with available hiking trails.
The five German forests cover 4,391 hectares and were added in 2011.
|#||Massif||Region||Type of nature reserve||Preserved area||Buffer zone|
|1||Chornohora||Zakarpattia||Carpathian Biosphere Reserve||2476.8 ha||12925 ha|
|2||Uholka / Wide Meadow||11860 ha||3301 ha|
|3||Svydovets||3030.5 ha||5639.5 ha|
|4||Maramoros||2243.6 ha||6230.4 ha|
|5||Kuziy / Trybushany||1369.6 ha||3163.4 ha|
|6||Stuzhytsia / Uzhok||Uzh National Nature Park||2532 ha||3615 ha|
|7||Stužica / Bukovské vrchy||Presov||Poloniny National Park||2950 ha||11300 ha|
|8||Rožok||Presov Preserved areas||67.1 ha||41.4 ha|
|9||Vihorlat||2578 ha||2413 ha|
|10||Havešová||171.3 ha||63.9 ha|
|11||Jasmund||Mecklenburg-Vorpommern||Jasmund National Park||492.5 ha||2510.5 ha|
|12||Serrahn||Müritz National Park||268.1 ha||2568 ha|
|13||Grumsiner Forest||Brandenburg||Grumsiner Forest Nature Reserve||590.1 ha||274.3 ha|
|14||Hainich||Thuringia||Hainich National Park||1573.4 ha||4085.4 ha|
|15||Kellerwald||Hesse||Kellerwald-Edersee National Park||1467.1 ha||4271.4 ha|
Most of the Slovak components of the World Heritage site are situated in the Poloniny National Park in the easternmost and also the least populated part of the country. The National Park was created on 1 October 1997 with a protected area of 298.05 km² and a buffer zone of 109.73 km².